Fundamentals of Microwave and RF Design enables mastery of the essential concepts required to cross the barriers to a successful career in microwave and RF design. Extensive treatment of scattering parameters, that naturally describe power flow, and of Smith-chart-based design procedures prepare the student for success. The emphasis is on design at the module level and on covering the whole range of microwave functions available.
Radio Frequency PCB Layout Guidelines
The orientation is towards using microstrip transmission line technologies and on gaining essential mathematical, graphical and design skills for module design proficiency. This book is derived from a multi volume comprehensive book series, Microwave and RF Design, Volumeswith the emphasis in this book being on presenting the fundamental materials required to gain entry to RF and microwave design. This book closely parallels the companion series that can be consulted for in-depth analysis with referencing of the book series being familiar and welcoming.
He received his B. He has authored more than publications including twelve books. Reviews Learn more about reviews. About the Book Fundamentals of Microwave and RF Design enables mastery of the essential concepts required to cross s7 edge update pie barriers to a successful career in microwave and RF design.When we think of electricity, we naturally think of wires.
From high-voltage transmission lines to tiny traces on a printed circuit board, wires are still the fundamental means of transferring electrical energy from one location to another.
But history has consistently demonstrated that human beings are rarely, if ever, satisfied with the fundamental way of doing things, and thus we should not be surprised to learn that the proliferation of electricity was followed by widespread efforts to free electrical functionality from the constraints of physical interconnections. One of these is the use of electromagnetic radiation, which is the basis for RF communication.
Anything that can travel through a nonconductive material—mechanical motion, sound waves, heat—could be used as a perhaps crude means of converting electrical energy into information that does not rely on conductive interconnections. With this in mind, we can ask ourselves the more relevant questions: Why is electromagnetic radiation the preferred method?
Why are other types of wireless communication of such secondary importance? You could spend years studying the details of electromagnetism. As the name implies, electromagnetic radiation involves both electric fields and magnetic fields. If you have voltage—such as the voltage across the impedance of an antenna—you have an electric field from a mathematical standpoint, electric field is proportional to the spatial rate of change of voltage.
If you have electric current—such as the current passing through the impedance of an antenna—you have a magnetic field the strength of the field is proportional to the magnitude of the current.
The electric and magnetic fields are present even if the magnitude of the voltage or current is constant. However, these fields would not propagate.
If we want a wave that will propagate out into the universe, we need changes in voltage and current. The key to this propagation phenomenon is the self-sustaining relationship between the electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic radiation.
A changing electric field generates a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic field generates an electric field. This mutual regeneration is manifested as a distinct entity, namely, an electromagnetic wave. Once generated, this wave will travel outward from its source, careening day after day, at the speed of light, toward the depths of the unknown.
Designing an entire RF communication system is not easy. Any time-varying signal in any circuit will generate EMR, and this includes digital signals. In most cases this EMR is simply noise. In some cases it can actually interfere with other circuitry, in which case it becomes EMI electromagnetic interference.
We see, then, that RF design is not about merely generating EMR; rather, RF design is the art and science of generating and manipulating and interpreting EMR in a way that allows you to reliably transfer meaningful information between two circuits that have no direct electrical connection. There are a few reasons:.Radio Frequency RF devices are one of the most exciting applications to build these days in electronics design. Any up and coming technology used in smartphones, sensors, robotics, and security is going to demand these complicated, high frequency boards.
But as we all know, with greater complexity comes greater headaches for engineers like you that have to design them! Image source.Quality factor derivation of λ/2 short circuited lossy transmission line resonator
This app note is designed specifically for the design and layout of RF printed circuit boards. These are highly complex devices that can include digital, analog, and RF components in configurations up to sixty layers!
Maxim will be walking you through some of the best practices to make your design process easy to approach. Does your RF layout require you to move a transmission line between layers? Maxim recommends using at least two via holes for each transition point to minimize via inductance loading. The width of these transition vias will need to match the width of the transmission lines. This will ensure that impedance remains steady as current travels through the bend. This helps to reduce impedance fluctuations and can be found with formula from Douville and James.
The return current path for system bias layers always needs to be considered in an RF design. Adding signal layers between a bias and ground layer will create a larger return path as shown below, resulting in noise coupling on the signal layers.
Signal layers between bias and ground will be coupled with noise. These designs are just going to get more prevalent as we move into the age of connected devices, so this is the perfect toolbox to start building today! Some of the other guidelines in this app note includes:. Think engineering is all black and white? Think again. Passive components are more active than you think. Still relying on resistors for your divider and bias? Learn new techniques for biasing and decoupling op amps for single supply applications.
All rights reserved. Eagle Open Navigation Menu. Related Articles. The Myth of Passive Components Think engineering is all black and white?This paper introduces the basics of designing a digital radio receiver. With many new advances in data converter and radio technology, complex receiver design has been greatly simplified. This paper attempts to explain how to calculate sensitivity and selectivity of such a receiver. It is not by any means an exhaustive exposition, but is instead a primer on many of the techniques and calculations involved in such designs.
Many advances in radio design and architecture are now allowing for rapid changes in the field of radio design. These changes allow reduction of size, cost, complexity and improve manufacturing by using digital components to replace unreliable and in-accurate analog components.
For this to happen, many advances in semiconductor design and fabrication were required and have come to fruition over the last few years.
This article summarizes the design issues with and the interfacing of these devices into complete radio systems. The radio and the digital processor. With this segmentation, the purpose of the radio is to down convert and filter the desired signal and then digitize the information. Likewise, the purpose of the digital processor is to take the digitized data and extract out the desired information.
An important point to understand is that a digital receiver is not the same thing as digital radio modulation. In fact, a digital receiver will do an excellent job at receiving any analog signal such as AM or FM.
Digital receivers can be used to receive any type of modulation including any analog or digital modulation standards. Furthermore, since the core of the digital processor is a digital signal processor DSPthis allows many aspects of the entire radio receiver itself be controlled through software. As such, these DSPs can be reprogrammed with upgrades or new features based on customer segmentation, all using the same hardware.
However, this is a complete discussion in itself and not the focus of this article. The following topics will be discussed:. There are two basic types of radios under discussion.
The single carrier receiver is a traditional radio receiver deriving selectivity in the analog filters of the IF stages. The benefit of such a receiver is that in applications with multiple receivers tuned to different frequencies within the same band can achieve smaller system designs and reduced cost due to eliminated redundant circuits. Another application might be surveillance receivers that typically use scanners to monitor multiple frequencies. This applications allows simultaneous monitoring of many frequencies without the need for sequential scanning.
Before a detailed discussion of designing a digital radio receiver are discussed, some of the technical benefits need to be discussed. Many of these provide technical advantages not otherwise achievable with a traditional radio receiver design. The Nyquist criterion compactly determines the sample rate required for any given signal. Many times, the Nyquist rate is quoted as the sample rate that is twice that of the highest frequency component.
Instead, Nyquist requires that the signal be sampled twice the bandwidth of the signal. Therefore, if our signal bandwidth is 5 MHz, then sampling at 10 MHz is adequate. Anything beyond this is called Over Sampling. In contrast to over sampling is the act of under sampling.
Under sampling is the act of sampling at a frequency much less than the half of the actual signal frequency See the section below on undersampling. Therefore, it is possible to be oversampling and undersampling simultaneously since one is defined with respect to bandwidth and the other at the frequency on interest. In any digitization process, the faster that the signal is sampled, the lower the noise floor because noise is spread out over more frequencies.
The total integrated noise remains constant but is now spread out over more frequencies which has benefits if the ADC is followed by a digital filter.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Romero Diaz.
Library of Congress. Radio—Equipment and supplies 2. Wireless communications systems—Design and con- struction 3. Radio frequency I. Title Printed and bound in the United States of America.
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International Standard Book Number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Preface Every year, tens of thousands of young engineers and university graduates enter the fascinating professional field of radio frequency RF design. Most of them have a reasonable understanding of applied mathematics and physics, circuit theory, elec- tromagnetism, and electronics as well as computers and programming. Despite the comprehensive courses and overwhelming educational literature, however, many of these talented young people have to face the crude practical project environment of systems and equipment without much prior knowledge of, or tutorials about, how and why things are done the way they are done.
I was once in that situation. Typi- cally, nobody in the office has time enough to explain things—and not that much time to listen, either.The above course is taught on campus in groups and now it is being provided online as well for individuals.
At the end of this course the student will have depth knowledge of Radio Frequency principles. This course is also helpful for Engineers in the industry or technicians which want to change gears towards Radio Frequency.
Upon completion of the course the students would be provided a certification of completion. Please note this course is eligible towards Rahsoft Radio Frequency Certificate.
In this section we are going to discuss power in electronic and RF circuits. Initially, basic and yet significant power concepts such as Instantaneous and average power are discussed in details using formula and examples.
In the next step complex power and maximum power transform is discussed. Achieving maximum power transfer with matching is one of the most important concepts that one should know first of all in RF design. You are going to learn what is the purpose of using matching circuit in RF design. We talked about this concepts using formula, numerous examples and simulations. As the last part, we explain dB and dBm. Sensitivity and Dynamic Range are two important factors that we have to know when we are designing a receiver.
These two parameters are explained in this section using formula and figures. At the end of this section you will understand the whole concept and you will be able to calculate Sensitivity and Dynamic Range for a given system. Radio Frequency. Categories Radio FrequencyTechnology.
Buy Complete RF Certificate. Buy Now. Overview Curriculum Instructor The above course is taught on campus in groups and now it is being provided online as well for individuals. Course Features Lectures 60 Quizzes 27 Duration 8. You have 52 weeks remaining for the course. Lecture 1. Lecture 2.Designers can now enter schematics, perform all layout tasks, and prepare data for manufacturing when designing with RF circuits.
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No more schematic "black boxes" - produce true RF schematics in system-level design. To fully support RF designs, Xpedition has been designed to understand RF, not just translate the design. The library is synchronized with the circuit-simulation model counterpart in the RF simulation environment to ensure that their behavior is identical. Electronic Design Automation. Connectivity Electrification Autonomous Architecture. Contact PCB Design. Service Bureaus. Eliminate manual data transfer with dynamic integration between Mentor PCB design and industry RF simulation tools Enable globally dispersed team collaboration with concurrent schematic and layout design PCB and RF environment libraries both understand RF elements and stay in sync throughout the design process Modify parametric RF elements within PCB layout to optimize space efficiency.
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